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Home > Tamil Culture - the Heart of Tamil National Consciousness > Tamil Culture: Its Past, Its Present and Its Future with special reference to Ceylon
Tamil Culture: Its Past, Its Present and Its
Rev. Dr.Xavier S. Thani Nayagam
Front Note by Sachi Sri Kantha
‘Tamil’ means ‘sweetness’ and ‘Culture’ has been defined as ‘sweetness and light’. ‘Tamil’ and ‘Culture’, therefore, make a most graceful combination both in Language and Life. It is this graceful combination that has brought us here this evening.
It was my privilege, Sir, three years ago, to address a meeting under your Chairmanship on the ‘Characteristics of Tamil Culture’, and I am grateful to you, for your continued kindness and your generous references to me. We may take this meeting as an indication of the growing devotedness to their culture that we find among all sections of the Tamil-speaking people, and as an earnest of goodwill towards the aims and purposes of the Tamil Cultural Society.
The Tamil Cultural Society has completed three years since its inception. If it is to be of greater service to the Tamil-speaking peoples, it should be our privilege to welcome to the Society more members from every walk of life. It is by the growth of organized action among the Tamil-speaking population that the Society may hope to realize what it has so elaborately planned. There was never a time in the history of this Island when concentrated action was so vital to our existence as it is today. It is the aim of the Tamil Cultural Society to have an Island-wide membership of at least ten thousand people, all united in the furtherance of the cause of Tamil Culture, the Tamil Language, Tamil Literature and the Tamil Arts. This may seem an ambitious aim, but it is not beyond realization, provided every Tamil-speaking citizen is conscious of his heritage, and of his duty to pass on that heritage to the generations that will succeed him in this Island.
What is Culture?
Tamil Culture is nothing else but the Tamil way of life, a pattern of gracious living that has been formed during the centuries of Tamil history. It has been conditioned by the land, the climate, the language, the literature, the religions, the customs, the laws, the food, the games and toys of the Tamil people, by the palmyra palm, the gingelly oil, and the vegetables associated with them. Culture is a most elusive and at the same time an all-embracing term.
The Antiquity of Tamil Culture in Ceylon
The Mahavamsa itself recognizes the existence of a civilized people
living in cities at the time of the landing of Vijaya. The Mahavamsa
too supposes a pre-Buddhist period in Ceylon when the religion of
the people was Hindu. The story of Elara’s reign, the statement,
The relations of the Sinhalese Kings with Nagadipa, with the Chera, Chola, Pandya Kings of South India, their dynastic alliances, their embassies, their treaties, and even their wars and their intrigues, are evidence of a fraternal rivalry that existed between these neighbouring kingdoms. There is a tendency to exaggerate these wars and to portray these cultures as if they were perpetually in conflict. Such a portrayal is one of the dangers of history.
The truth is, that to one well read in Ceylon and South Indian history, these conflicts seem like the internal conflicts of kindred peoples. The wars of the Tamils against the Sinhalese are not any more numerous or hostile than the wars among the Tamil kingdoms themselves.
At the time the Portuguese landed on this Island, there is ample evidence for the honoured place Tamil had at the Court of Kotte and for the Tamil schools that the Portuguese founded in the Western and North Western Provinces.
When printing was introduced into this Island for the first time, the Dutch published books both in the Tamil and Sinhalese tongues. A copy of a Tamil book published in Colombo in 1754 by the Dutch Pastor Bronsveld, refers in its dedication to the Tamil language spoken within the greater area of this Island. (Maxima cum hujus insulae parte Tamulice loquentem).
Robert Knox and the Dutch dispatches speak of the Tamil townships and the Tamil-speaking people of the Kandyan Kingdom.
The existence of two different religions did not always prevent the patronage that kings of one persuasion extended to the religion that was not theirs, did not prevent the patronage and employment of Saivaite queens; did not prevent the teaching of Tamil along with Sinhalese, Pali and Sanskrit at the more famous privenas as testified by the Gira Sandesa (15th century).
There was a time when Buddhism counted many Tamils among its followers, even in Ceylon, and Tamil Buddhist monks contributed in no small measure to the enrichment of Tamil literature and Pali literature. Viharas were established in the Tamil-speaking areas of Ceylon and South India, and Tamil monks came to teach as well as to learn in the Sinhalese kingdoms. It will always remain a source of pride to us that the greatest, if not the only classical epic of Theravada Buddhism exists in the Tamil language. The poetry of Manimekhalai (2nd cent. AD) has been forgotten by scholars because of its didactic and doctrinal appeal, but it remains one of the finest jewels of Tamil poetry with an abundance of quotable lines.
The Virasoliyam, a compendious Tamil grammar, was compiled in the 11th century by a Tamil Buddhist, Buddhamitrar. The origin of Tamil is attributed in this grammar to Avaloketiswara (Bhodisattva). This grammar seems to have influenced the Sinhalese grammar, Sidatsangarawa. Among the more famous Tamil Buddhists that visited Ceylon on religious and cultural missions were Sangamitta (4th cent.), Buddhadatta Mahathero (5th cent.), Vajirabhodhi (7th-8th cent.), Anurudha (12th cent.), Dharmakirti – author (?) of the Culvavamsa (13th cent.). Dignaga, Dharmapala of Nalanda, Bhodidharmar of China were three other illustrious Tamil exponents of Buddhism.
The Tamil Language
A language is always a mirror of a people’s genius. The Tamil Language has been spoken basically in its present form for the last two thousand years, and it continues even now to be the living language for thirty to forty million people – about thirty million people in India, more than two million people in Ceylon, nearly one million people in Malaya, Vietnam and Indonesia, and many thousands scattered over Fiji, Mauritius, Madagascar, Africa and even Trinidad and the Martinique Islands. Tamil is as much a classical language as Greek, Latin or Sanskrit, with this difference that while her ancient contemporaries have changed beyond recognition or been long regarded as ‘dead’, Tamil continues to be one of the most vigorous of modern languages, and perhaps offers the only example in history of an ancient classical tongue which has survived to this day and yet remains as it was two thousand years ago.
The monumental Tamil-English Dictionary by Miron Winslow was
commenced in Jaffna by Joseph Knight, assisted by Gabriel Tissera
and Rev.Percival (two Ceylonese), and it is in the introduction to
this dictionary that Dr.Winslow has the oft-quoted passage:
Tamil speech as obtaining in Ceylon, and Tamil phonetics as obtaining especially in the Northern and Eastern provinces, show a fidelity to the earliest Tamil grammars which the speech of South India does not – a clear indication of the development of Tamil in Ceylon unhampered by the extraneous influences to which South India was subject.
If English be the language of commerce, French the language of diplomacy, Italian the language of love, and German the language of philosophy, then Tamil is the language of devotion. The devotional poetry in Tamil is so great in bulk, and in depth and intensity of emotional fervour, that its continued study has given the language a certain aptitude for the expression of themes pertaining to mysticism and contemplation. The Nature poetry of the Tamils is again the result of a people who lived intimately with Nature. No people, except perhaps the people of the Pacific Islands, have made so much use of flowers and plants in daily life for various purposes as the Tamils have done. The Tamils said it flowers not only in love but also in warfare. The ancient Tamil warriors went to battle, their brows decked with garlands, and each strategic movement had its own symbolic flower.
The influence and vitality of Tamil culture in Ceylon has been such that it has produced a Tamil literature of worth, of which there is indisputable evidence from the 13th century, and many a Ceylonese poet and scholar crossed the Straits and won fame and recognition in other lands where Tamil is spoken. The name of Arumuga Navalar is associated with a great revivalist movement in Tamil and Saivaism; C.Y.Thamotherampillai was a pioneer editor of the classics which spearheaded the Tamil renaissance; V.Kanagasabaipillai opened up a new horizon to many a foreigner with his ‘The Tamils Eighteen Hundred Years Ago’; N.Kathiravelpillai distinguished himself as a lexicographer; Cumaraswamy Pulavar was recognized as a scholar of outstanding merit; Swami Vipulananda occupied the Chair of Tamil at the Annamalai University, and Swami Gnana Prakasar established his reputation for comparative philology and for the history of the Tamil-speaking people. The records of some of the earlier Tamil writers of Ceylon have been included in the ‘Tamil Plutarch’ compiled by Simon Casie-Chitty.
Sinhalese sovereigns of various periods extended their patronage to Tamil poets, and the story is told of the forlorn Tamil bard that set out from Jaffna with his poem to the Court of Rajasingha at Kandy, to be told on the way that the last Tamil-speaking king of Ceylon had been taken captive.
Ideals of Life
The sea ports of the then Tamil country, which included all the Malabar coast as well, were busy ports of call into which ships from the West sailed with their gold, lamps, wine and goblets, to return home laden with pepper and silks and cotton and ivory, and with the pearls of the Tamil seas. Teak from the Tamil country has been found in the ruins of Ur of the Chaldees, and peacocks and apes of the South were sold abroad as early as Solomon’s time. Yavanar, or men of the Greco-Roman world, established colonies and trading stations in the Tamil kingdoms, and were even employed as engineers, body guards, palace guards and city guards in the service of Tamil kings.
In this trade and overseas expansion the ports of North Ceylon played a great part which is forgotten in the age of steamship and the aeroplane. Kalpitiya, Mantote, Kayts, Elephant Pass, Trincomalee have a naval history that has yet to be studied from local and foreign records, including the Arab chronicles.
The Tamil Argonauts turned their eyes even more naturally towards the East and with them they carried their art and architecture, their religion, their language and their laws. It is agreed by most writers on Indian influences on South East Asia that the Tamil kingdoms were among the earliest and the most active.
The authors of the Periplus, and Ptolemy speak of the ships that used to sail from the Eastern coasts of South India and Ceylon to the land of gold (Malaya and Java), and Fa Hien refers to his voyage to Java, via Trincomalee. Having traveled lately through South East Asia, I have been able to follow the routes taken by the Tamil Argonauts and see the many lands where the Tamil-speaking people left behind the traces of their genius and culture. In the architecture of Champa and Cambodia, in the sculptures of the Museum of Tourane, in the Saiva Siddhantha system of religion once followed in Indonesia and Indochina, in the bronzes of Siam, may be seen the traces of Tamil influence. The Bharatha Natyam has affinities with the dances of Cambodia and Bali; the Tamil sacred verses are recited by the Court Brahmins of Thailand at the Tamil feasts of Thirupavay and Thiruvempavai, and during the coronation of their kings; certain tribes in Sumatra go under the Tamil names of Chera, Chola, Pandya and Pallava; and the temples of Dieng plateau of Po-Nagar, of Mi-son (Vietnam), of Anghor Thom, show influence of Tamil architecture.
Islam was spread in the Malay archipelago largely by Tamil-speaking people. Because of their international outlook, trade and navigation, the Tamils eschewed insularity and developed a remarkable universality of outlook. Wendell Wilkie in One World begins his book with the statement, ‘In future our thinking must be worldwide.’ The Tamil poet anticipated him by a two thousand years when he said, ‘Yathum Oore – Yaavarum KeLLeer’ [‘Every country is my country; Every man is my kinsman’]
This sense of universality was instrumental in fashioning Tamil society after a broad and tolerant pattern. Albert Schweitzer in his ‘Indian Thought and Its Development’ shows exhaustively the optimistic, humanistic sense of life and life affirmation, the joie de vivre, that is characteristic of the Tamil attitude to life. He has also shown that three of the greatest philosophers of India, namely Sankara, Ramanuja and Ramananda came from the South and were indebted to Tamil thought.
The happy warrior delineated by the Tamil classics is one who has a sense of honor and of chivalry, and who will rather die than turn his back upon a foe or an adverse circumstance. Honor, bravery and nobility (maanam) required one to bear the marks and scars of battle on the bosom. The story is told of the Tamil matron that heard of her son who had fallen in battle. She hurried to the battlefield in distress lest he should have fallen in retreat, but was relieved and happy when she saw the wounds on his chest, the infallible sign that he had fallen facing the enemy.
The Tamil warrior was expected to cover himself with glory in the
arts of war and of peace. Men were illustrious because they left a
glorious name (puhaz):
The ideal of tolerance, the will to live and let live, is well illustrated by the anthologies which include poems of every shade of religious and philosophic belief. It is further clear from the scenes in Manimekhalai of Tamil cities where philosophers of rival schools expounded their own doctrines from their respective booths, under their own flags – a two thousand year old anticipation of Hyde Park corner.
The tradition of bakthi and the ideal of tolerance explain the fact that nearly every world religion can claim in Tamil, a voluminous literature. Tamil culture has been enriched by poetical works of Saivaites, of Vaishnavaites, of Jains, of Buddhists, of Muslims, of Catholics, of Protestants. No other language in the world has been the vehicle of the epic poetry of so many different religions, not Latin, not Sanskrit.
As the ideal of the philosopher-statesman was outlined by the Greeks, as the orator was delineated by the Latins, the courtier and governor by the English, the Tamils conceived their educational ideal as the complete man, the perfect man (saanron) endowed with honor, greatness, culture, benevolence, and grace.
Further, a life of altruistic love was recommended to every Tamil.
It has been found that persons dedicated to service and love live
longer than others, and probably it is the altruism of Tamil
(1) As the basis and source of this apathy and inertia, I would
point to the ignorance of the language, of the literature, of the
arts, of the history, of the culture, that exists among our people
today, especially among those sections that combine wealth and
influence and a lop-sided Western education. Cultures disappear by
those very causes by which they flourish, and the disappearance of
the ideals that nourished Tamil culture will eventually lead to the
disappearance of Tamil culture itself.
(2) The dearth of philosophic thought is, perhaps, the greatest
drawback in the popularizing of true values in Ceylon. In the spate
of talk and oratory about our past glories, we run very dry
concerning the problems that affect us in the domain of thought,
concerning our beliefs, our code of right and wrong, our political
creeds, our ideals of service, our national unity. Philosophy is not
the peculiar business of the angels; it is human business,
(3) A lack of originality is seen in the Tamil radio, the Tamil films, and the Tamil newspapers. It is also visible (or audible) in the platform oratory that is being developed in a manner so that the sense follows the sound; it is audible in the alien Tamil accent that is heard over Radio Ceylon; in the hybrid imitations that pass for Tamil dance, and in the poor norms of appreciation of Tamil music.
(4) The emphasis hitherto in the Tamil Renaissance has been on the study of literature. An equal emphasis is necessary today on the Fine Arts of the Tamils. We have not produced recently any great sculptor or any great painter. It is by a revival of these arts that we shall teach our people the art of life and the art of gracious living. A very famous English writer on the Tamil dance wrote to me sometime ago from Canada: ‘I would give anything to have a glimpse of a Pallava sculpture or a Chola bronze.’ It requires an esthetic mind to be so moved by art.
I have no intention of continuing these observations because I see at the same time a few signs of an awaking of effective interest in our cultural heritage. But the question that agitates our minds today, the mind of every Tamil-speaking citizen be he Muslim or Hindu, Catholic or Protestant, or Buddhist, concerns the future of Tamil culture in this country.
Languages of Administration
(I follow A.L.Kroeber’s definition of nation and nationality: ‘Here are some contemporary cases of political nations that include two or more nationalities. Belgium is almost equally divided between Walloons speaking a French dialect in their homes and Flemings speaking a variant of Dutch. Switzerland is 72 percent German-speaking, 21 percent French, 6 percent Italian, 1 percent Romansch. The Union of South Africa has a white population that is part English speaking and part Afrikaans or Dutch speaking, plus the racially distinct Bantu-Negro natives. India in 1947 set up house-keeping on its own, as two independent political nations with dozens of nationalities and languages.’)
In the formation and preservation of nationalities, language is by
far the most objective factor. It is the free inter-communication of
common speech that provides the consciousness of kinship. Language
is the rational and spiritual matrix in which a culture lives, moves
and has its being. Hence the Tamil poets have consistently lost
themselves in a mystical enthusiasm over the nature of the language,
calling it the sweetest possible names:
The use of the Tamil language in the civil, educational and social life of this country is an absoloute necessity if Tamil culture is to survive. Today, Tamil is spoken in every part of Ceylon by over two million people; it is indigenous to this island; its speakers constitute a major nationality; its cultural influence in the nation is very much greater than may be gauged from the numerical strength of its speakers. Words are the living memorials in which are enshrined much of social and political history. The inner life of every people is stereotyped in their language, and retained there for the instruction of future generations. I could give you hundreds of Tamil words and terms, the disuse of which in administration would impoverish the Tamils in Ceylon in more ways than one. It is but a fundamental and human right that Tamil be one of the languages of administration all over the country so that the Tamil-speaking population may transact their business with Government is attended to by members of the Government service who have a minimum knowledge of the Tamil language.
There is a flagrant contradiction in the statements of those thinkers who would have Tamil as a medium of instruction in schools but not as a medium in administration. If there is equality of opportunity in this island, it should be made compulsory for a government servant to have a minimum knowledge of both languages so that he may serve in any part of the island.
That two languages should function as languages of administration is nothing new in the history of multilingual or bilingual states. South Africa, Canada, Belgium, Switzerland have their own solutions to the language problems. When three nationalities, four languages, and adherents of three religions have cooperated to build an exceptionally ‘national’ national in Switzerland, two languages in Ceylon should present no difficulties provided we are determined to preserve the unity of our nation and the territorial integrity of our country. The rule by majority as practiced in homogenous states which have only one language, one nationality, one race, one religion, may not be exercised in countries with a plurality of cultures, nationalities, languages and religions. If the Swiss confederation has made concession to a language like Romansch which is spoken by only one percent of its population in one of its twenty five cantons, and to Italian spoken by six percent of its population in two of its cantons, there must be an affinity between democracy and language that is worth learning.
“In all these countries, Belgium, South Africa and Switzerland, none of the linguistic groups can be properly called a ‘national minority’, as each has absolute equality of status with the majority group and its language is used by the state side by side with the language of the majority.” (N.Hans, Comparative Education, p.50)
In the interests of national stability and solidarity it might be useful for cultural leaders of bilingual and multilingual states to study the questions of national languages on an international plane. Such conferences would strengthen the claims of the Tamil language in Ceylon.
Tamil at the University
The complaint of creative inactivity in Tamil letters and the
barrenness of Tamil art in the Ceylon of today is primarily due to
the absence of a centre of Tamil thought and Tamil basic research.
Our population and our need would justify the founding of two more
universities, which would be mainly concerned with the development
of the national languages. A university in the Northern or Eastern
province with a Tamil cultural emphasis and another in the South of
Ceylon, heir to Totagamuwa, would meet our needs. Of the Wijaya Bahu
Pirivena, Sir Ponnambalam Arunachalam speaking at the Calcutta
University Institute in 1916 said:
To deny Tamil, equality of status and opportunity at the University
or at the Universities of Ceylon, is to deny to the Tamil-speaking
people that scholarship and opportunity for national service and
cultural refinement which are the ends and aims of higher learning.
Are we to be denied these gifts of university life merely because a bilingual university is supposed to be a novel institution in our national experience? Bilingual universities are no uncommon feature of bilingual and multilingual countries. They tend to set the tone and the example in tolerance, good understanding and cooperation for the rest of the country. And bilingualism at the university and in administration function on the understanding that on the part of the language groups there will be no linguistic or cultural imposition which involves the sacrifice of the mother tongue.
The existence of the age-long cultures side by side should be looked upon as a source of fruitfulness and mutual benefits. Hence our universities, schools, and adult educational agencies should provide opportunities for the study for the study of the two national languages. Citizens should be encouraged to learn the other national language so that they may break the language barrier in the interests of social harmony. In Ceylon, we possess already a linguistic environment favorable to the study of Sinhalese, Tamil and English, and as many citizens as possible should avail themselves of this opportunity to obtain a knowledge of the three languages, naturally, in varying degrees of proficiency.
Responsibility of the State
Nor is it accurate to say that the Tamils are so endowed with intelligence that they will learn the Sinhalese language and wield it with the facility of a mother tongue even better than the Sinhalese themselves. This is a very unscientific conjecture entirely unsupported by facts. The Tamils can never acquire the same command of Sinhalese as those to whom Sinhalese is the mother tongue, unless they are prepared to change their mother tongue. There are very, very few people in the world who are able to think, speak and write two languages with the same equal facility. And what guarantee is there that even if they sell their birthright, origins, religion, names and antecedents will not prevent discrimination should Government or society choose to discriminate against them?
Some Ways and Means
1) Active support should be given to associations dedicated to the study and promotion of Tamiliana.
2) Tamil society should set the highest standards in this revivalist and progressive movement. Awards (cash, medals, books) should be offered for creative work and for translations.
3) Libraries and museums should be established as means of adult education and films should be made of the Tamil heritage.The project of the Jaffna Library merits the support of the entire country.
4) A comprehensive Tamil-Sinhalese-English dictionary and a Tamil Encyclopedia for Ceylon should be compiled.
5) Basic research should be undertaken by cultural associations so that the significance and import of Tamil customs and habits and way of life may be popularized among the Tamil speaking people.
6) Teachers of Tamil should be well qualified and be lovers of Tamil literature that enjoy Tamil poetry in their leisure. A new orientation in the prescribing of books of study and in their teaching is necessary if Tamil children are to love their language and enjoy poetry and the Tamil arts as the expression of life and experience, and wield their language for intelligent and effective citizenship. The writing of poetry should receive especial attention, since poetry, more than any other fine art, is a powerful vehicle for the transmission of a people’s ideals, history and language. Our folk dances and folk songs should be fostered.
7) Tamil monuments in Ceylon should be better studied and preserved. If the state for some reason or other, has not hitherto prepared specialists in Tamil archeology or Tamil history, it should be the duty of the Tamil cultural associations to request the state to do so. The university, the Department of Archeology, the Public Museums should have scholars well versed in Tamiliana. Scholarships may be offered to deserving students by the Tamil-speaking public.
8) Tamil studies should be made to show the points of contact and elements common with Sinhalese culture so as to promote understanding and national solidarity.
9) The Tamil classics should be translated into Sinhalese and books in Tamil culture be written in English and Sinhalese for the promotion of inter-nationality harmony.
10) The contribution in thought, in literature, in art made by the Tamil-speaking people should be made known through translations in the principal languages of Europe and Asia, because that contribution is part of the world’s heritage. In the past, for political and religious reasons, Tamil studies had enthusiastic students in Portugal, Holland, France and England. In the future, it will be the duty of Tamils themselves to give their treasures to their fellowmen, and a few Tamil scholars at least should learn Hindi, Chinese, Japanese and Indonesian for this purpose.
11) Culture is dependent for its origin and its development on geography and on the land. Tamil culture has had always an intimate communion with the land as is to be seen from the earliest Tamil poetry down to our own day. The tendency of people to flock to the towns should be arrested, for extreme urbanization and the consequent change means death to a culture such as ours. One cannot be opposed to change or to the absorbing elements that are conducive to cultural progress. But the process of change should not involve the ceasing of a vital internal development. The Tamil-speaking people should cooperate in colonization programs and revive the agricultural bias of their social structure.
12) Every Tamil-speaking citizen should make his own contribution to this cultural movement, by study, by doing promotional work, and by material assistance. Many associations and authors fail to give of their best for want of adequate finances.
Unto the Last
If I have ventured to suggest to you a few measures for the continued preservation and development of Tamil culture, I have done so in the spirit of a student. The history that I have outlined, the language in which our mothers sang to us when rocking our cradles, the words that have become dear to us by traditional usage and the phrases that have become consecrated in our prayers at home or at common worship, the literature that has formed, nurtured and elevated us and offered us the ideals which we cherish, these are some of the factors that contributed to the Tamil-speaking peoples existing as a nationality upon this island. One is not less a Ceylonese for being loyal to Tamil culture or to Sinhalese culture.
While it is true that a culture may not be created artificially, it is equally true that it is in the power of men to contribute to the causes and work at those conditions necessary for a flowering of culture, and it is also in the power of men to combat those intellectual errors and the emotional prejudices which stand in the way of such conditions. The survival and the continued growth of Tamil culture is, therefore, in our hands.
It is selfless and noble to dedicate one’s time and energies under
God to one’s culture and one’s country. The Tamil sage implied that
Tamil culture is the dearest possession of the Tamil people for the
preservation of which no sacrifice would be great enough, not even
 W.Geiger, The Mahavamsa, p.165; pp.264f., Colombo 1950.
 H.Butterfield, History and Human Relations, p.158ff., London, 1951.
 De Queyroz, The Temporal and Spiritual Conquest of Ceylon,
p.241, Colombo, 1930; S.G.Perera, The Jesuits in Ceylon, passim,
 Catechismus, Colombo, 1754 (Copy seen in the Museum Library of Djakarta).
 On place names, see B.J.Perera, Some observations on the study
of Sinhalese place names, in The Ceylon Historical Journal, vol.II
(1953) pp.241-250; page 244:
 A.N.Whitehead, Aims of Education, New York, 1951; “Language is the incarnation of the mentality of the race that fashioned it.”
 Quoted in Preface to Winslow’s Tamil-English Dictionary, Madras, 1862.
 A.Schweitzer, Indian Thought and its Development, pp. 200-205, London, 1936.
 See, M.Winslow, Preface to Tamil-English Dictionary; Sri Kantha, Terra Tamulica, Colombo, 1910.
 K.Kanapathipillai, Ceylon’s contribution to Tamil language and literature, in University of Ceylon Review, vol.VI, No.4 (1948); Articles by K.P.Ratnam and K.K.Nadarajah, in the Ceylon Tamil Festival Volume (Tamil), Jaffna, 1951.
 See E.H.Warmington, The Commerce between the Roman Empire and India.
 G.Coedes, Les etats Hindouises, Paris, 1948.
 Beryl de Zoete, The Other Mind, p.14, London, 1953.
 A.L.Kroeber, Anthropology, pp.226-227, New York, 1948.
 Consult, A.Siegfried, Switzerland, a democratic way of life, London,1950.
 Mario Pei, The Story of Language, New York, 1949, p.104. “A
trace of foreign accent is present in about 99% of cases where a
person of one linguistic background tries to speak another tongue.”