"..Groups of people are solidifying their
identities outside of the state, and the twenty-first century will see new
configurations of nongovernmental, intergovernmental, and UN structures.."
Boulding - Building Peace in the Middle East, 1994 quoted by Kevin Kusawa
in Finding the Kurds a Way: Kurdistan and the discourse of the nation-state). [see also
Tamil Diaspora - a Trans State
* indicates link to Amazon.com
** indicates link to Amazon.co.uk
Rajeswary Ampalavanar -
The Indian Minority and Political
Change in Malaya 1945-1957, Oxford University Press, 1981
Durai Raja Singam, S - A Hundred Years of Ceylonese in Malaysia and Singapore 1867-1967.
Lumpur, 1968. 433p.
Pavadarayan, Jayarani &
Schrader, Heiko. - The Chettiar Moneylenders in Singapore - in Evers, H.-D. & Schrader, H., eds. The
Moral Economy of Trade: Ethnicity
and Developing markets. London: Routledge, 1994.
*Fuller, Elizabeth -
Paperback, Published 1997
- The Overseas Indian in Southeast Asia: Burma, Malaysia, and Singapore
- in Tilman, R. O., ed. Man, state, and society in contemporary Southeast Asia. New York: Praeger, 1969. Pp. 450-466.
Bonded Labour :
Caste and Cultural Identity Among Tamil Plantation Workers in Sri Lanka
, Hardcover /
*McDowell, Christopher -
A Tamil Asylum
Diaspora : Sri Lankan Migration, Settlement and Politics in Switzerland (Refugee and
Forced Migration Studies, Vol 1) *Ivind
Fuglerud, Oivind Fuglerud -
Life on the
Outside : The Tamil Diaspora and Long-Distance Nationalism (Anthropology, Culture and
Society) / Paperback /
Published: June 1999(**alternative
link to Amazon.co.uk)
"....Exile is not primarily a geographical
location, it is a state of mind through which one becomes what one has left behind. In the
Tamil case many actually become what they have fled from. Between the extremes of the
warrior and the victim the refugee must carry out his 'bricolage', assemble the pieces and
carry on. For many this life project takes the form of internalised martyrdom, the fight
for Eelam being replaced by a longing for Eelam which grows into a constant part of the
personality and becomes a counterweight, the counterweight, to the vicissitudes of
exile. What is characteristic of the Tamil exile situation, therefore, is a blurring of
'here' and 'there'; the dismembering of social networks, the re-membering of an imaginary
homeland, the attachment of an imagined community to an imagined place. It is that from
which they are excluded which makes them not only 'refugees' but ' Tamil
refugees'...The grand narrative of revolutionary nationalism is adapted, by refugees who
accept it, to provide a genesis of the
the atrocities of the Sinhalese terrorists increased, to
protect our lives we fled...' This explanation goes beyond scientific history and
represents a 'mythico-history'.
Not because it is untrue
but because the Tamils as a people are here heroised and placed within a more encompassing
moral ordering of the world where relationships and processes are reinterpreted
within a dichotomy of good and evil...."
*Yvonne Fries, Thomas
Bibin - The
Undesirables : The Expatriation of the Tamil People of Recent Indian Origin from the
Plantations in Sri Lanka to India , Hardcover, Published 1985
Rajah, Gajaluckshumi - The Ceylon Tamils of Singapore. 101p. Academic exercise - Dept. of Social Studies, University of Malaya, 1958.
*Rajakrishnan Ramasamy -
citizens : Sri Lankan Tamils in Malaysia, 1885-1965
*Rajakrishnan Ramasamy -
consciousness among Indian Tamils in Malaysia
*Sahadevan, P -
overseas Indians : the case of Sri Lanka
Sandhu, Kernial S - Indians in Malaya: some aspects of their immigration and settlement 1786-1957. London: Cambridge University Press, 1969. 346p.
Sandhu, Kernial S. Some aspects of Indian settlement in Singapore, 1819-1969. Journal of Southeast Asian History, 10(2):193-201, 1969.
Sandhu, Kernial S. & Mani A., eds. Indian communities in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1993. 983p. Has a substantial section on Singapore and Malaysia.
Siva Subramaniam -
The Changing Character of the Identity Issue for Tamils - A
Socio-Cultural History , 2005
Tan, Tai Yong & Major, Andrew J. - India and Indians in the making of Singapore.
- in Yong, M. C. & Rao, V. B., eds. Singapore-India relations: a primer. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 1995. Pp. 1-20.
Tatla, Darshan Singh -
The Sikh Diaspora: the
Search for Statehood, UCL Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 1999